## River and Sea Transport

# Halfrid®diesel Application Instructions for River and Sea Transport

The present Application Instructions are developed for using quantum fuel activator Halfrid®diesel as a part of the fuels for reciprocating power stations with compression ignition – fast and slow marine diesel engines and diesel‐generators – to decrease fuel consumption, to improve operational and environmental characteristics of the engines and to clear the fuel supply systems.

Halfrid®diesel is also can be used for activation of the marine fuels which is set by the ISO 8217 standard (IFO 380, IFO 180, LS 380, LS 180, MDO, MGO). Halfrid®diesel is not designed for using as part of diesel fuels and black oils for boiler units and stoves.

### 1. Group

As for the method of application, HALFRID®DIESEL belongs to the group of fuel additives.

### 2. Composition and Operating Principle

Halfried ®diesel is a stabilized solution of specific organic substance in the mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons with boiling limits from 185 to 310 °С. In appearance Halfried ®diesel resembles diesel fuel from pale‐yellow tored colour with slight characteristic odor.

Chemical element | Percentage by weight |
---|---|

Carbon | 86‐89 |

Hydrogen | 9.6‐12.2 |

Oxygen | no more than 0.3 |

Nitrogen | not found |

Metals | not found |

Halogens | not found |

Sulphur | no more than 0.1 |

Other elements | traces |

Halfrid®diesel operating principle is based on the effect of quantum polyresonance activation (QPA), which is induced in the combustion gases of activated fuel and results in partial ordering of the incident reactants vibrational‐rotational motion, implying the decrease of its entropy and heat capacity. QPA effect doesn’t influence the temperature and rate of combustion, therefore the decrease of heat capacity results in the decrease of heat losses in the engines and, respectively, increase of the efficiency factor.

### 3. Effects

• decrease in specific fuel consumption no less than 10%;

• decrease in oil consumption up to 40%;

• decrease in engine minor components excessive ware up to 50%;

• emission control with respect to nitrogen oxides up to 30%;

• reduction of smokiness up to 40%;

• reduction of engine operation stiffness factor

• clearing of the fuel supply systems.

### 4. Method of Application and Dosage.

Injection of HALFRID®DIESEL into the fuel is carried out by adding the activator standard volume into the storage tank through the filling hole. The activator can be added to the full tank or just before buffer storage or fueling. HALFRID®DIESEL standard volume is defined according to the fuel volume and equals 100 cm3(100 milliliters) of activator per 1 m3(1000 liters) of fuel or 1 dm3(1 liter) of activator per 10 m3(10000 liters) of fuel. In the course of the first activation the total fuel volume in the fuel supply system should be calculated, including the non‐taking tankage, the volume of the pipelines, pumps and filters;

‐ In the course of all the subsequent fuelings, the amount of Halfried® diesel for storage tank should only correspond the volume of the fuel. The dosage inaccuracy shouldn’t exceed + 5% of standard (specified) quantity.

Example:

Ship fuel system contains 400 liters of standard (non‐activated) diesel fuel in storage tank (according to the tank measuring scale), the nominal tankage is 50 liters, total effective volume of rough and fine clearing filters is 10 liters, hydronic volume of the pumps is 5 liters, the length of the pipe fittings is 12 meters with 5 mm inner diameter and 8 meters with 7 mm inner diameter.

In order to find the full fuel volume it’s necessary to estimate the fuel volume in the pipelines, and for this purpose find the area of pipe fittings inside dimension (in cubic decimeters) using the formula S=π d2/4 and multiply by its length (in decimeters). In this example the volume is combined from two parts: d1=0.05 dm; d2=0.07 dm. Then S1=3.14*0.052/4=0.002 dm2; S2=3.14*0.072/4=0.0038 dm2; L1=120 dm, L2=80 dm and V1=120*0.002=0.24 dm3 (0.24 liters); V2=80*0,0038=0.3 dm3 (0.3 liter). Therefore total fuel volume in the system equals to 400+50+10+5+0.24+0.3=465.54 liters or 0.46554 m3. Hereof, standard volume of

Halfrid®diesel during the first activation equals to 100*0.46554=46.6 cm3 (or milliliter), and permissible error is + 5*46.554/100=2.3 cm3 (or 2.3 milliliter).

In the course of all the subsequent fuelings, the amount of added activator should only correspond the volume of the fuel for example, if after the first activation 200 liters of diesel fuel is filled into the fuel tank, you should add 20 cm3 (20 milliliters) of Halfrid®diesel just prior or right after the fueling.

Note

If it is impossible to define the exact fuel volume in the system before the first activation (for example, because of the insufficiency of data in the fuel pump ratings, the tankage data or impossibility to measure the length of the pipelines), Halfrid®diesel standard volume can be defined during the first activation using the values of approximate fuel volume in the system. In this very case and under the condition of the fuel volume misidentification due to any other reasons, the declared effects of Halfrid®diesel usage shall appear during the next fuelings.

In order to avoid additional errors it’s recommended to use measuring tanks with no less than 2nd accuracy class for Halfrid®diesel dosage.

### 5. Cooperative Effects

In case of fuel supply system severe contamination because of HALFRID®DIESEL detergency, fine filters and fuel‐injection nozzles blockage can be observed. If there is a significant amount of soot formations, in the first hours of using there can be temporary increase of exhaust smokiness.

In order to prevent possible problems during the first use of HALFRID®DIESEL , the regulation service should provide scheduled fine filter clearing or filter elements replacement during the first 6‐8 hours of working on activated fuel.

### 6. Safety Precautions

The safety precautions of Halfrid®diesel use are the same as for diesel fuel. Detailed safety instructions are presented in corresponding sections of Halfrid®diesel Technical Specification.

### 7*. Testing Rules

It’s necessary to compare specific fuel consumption before and after the activation when testing. Specific fuel consumption is calculated in kg/(ton‐kilometer) according to the following formula:

H sp. = m/W

where H sp. – specific fuel consumption [kg/(ton‐kilometer)], m – fuel consumption [kg], W – transport work volume [ton‐kilometer], which equals to transport weight with load [ton] multiplied by mileage [km]. Average calculation (fuel consumption, average velocity, etc.) is often complicated because of simultaneous presence of significant errors and their components. For instance, to define specific fuel consumption it is necessary to measure both fuel consumption on a certain section of a path and the very path length of the given section. Both values can be measured with a certain error and, according to the laws of mathematical statistics, the overall error is combined from the errors of both values, which results in greatly altered data with low integrity.

To increase the integrity of such measurements equal operation conditions are chosen when comparing the fuel consumption before and after the activation (similar weather conditions, the same transport, route, load, etc.). The integrity of calculations can be increased using mathematical treatment approach, for example, least squares method and graphic methods.

In particular, when defining average specific fuel consumption, a situation, when on different path sections the rate differs from the average and at the same time the path sections have significantly different values, occurs most of all. Since the specific fuel consumption is defined by dividing the fuel consumption by the path length, the shorter the section, the bigger the calculation error.